Some things you should know!
- Copious amounts of info copy-pasta'd from Wikipedia, because I fail at paraphrasing.
- The big, bold headers represent which character's "house" Monaco lived in during various eras. Claims of "independence" up until the nineteenth century can essentially be seen as her...camping out in France or Italy's backyard (depending on who owned the territory surrounding Monaco at the time) or something. She was still her own lady, but it still wasn't quite the same as the independence Monaco enjoys today.
- There's a big, ugly period between Monaco's time as territory of the Roman Empire and territory of the Holy Roman Empire where things are incredibly messy and confusing. Franks and Ostrogoths and Lombards and Saracens and what was left of the Romans were all involved, and Monaco got helplessly shuffled around quite a bit. There's really not a ton of info available regarding what happened to Monaco throughout those years, so I've deemed that period of time "an era which Monaco was too young and uninvolved to remember much from."
- This is forever a WIP. :'D
Pre-600 B.C. - 123 B.C. - God, idek who controlled this territory.
Pre-600 B.C. The first Ligurian settlers arrive in Monaco from Genoa, Italy.
600-500 B.C. The Phocaeans [Greeks] of Massalia [modern day Marseilles, France; originally a Greek colony] founded the colony of Monoikos (Greek: "μόνοικος"; "single house", from "μόνος" (monos) "alone, single" + "οἶκος" (oikos) "house"). It's said that Hercules passed through Monoikos, and the temple of Hercules Monoikos was supposedly constructed there. (The modern Port of Monaco is still sometimes referred to as the "Port of Hercules.")
123 B.C. - 476 A.D. - Roman Empire
123 B.C. The area surrounding Monaco (Gallia Transalpina) becomes a Roman province, which Monaco is absorbed into.
118 B.C. Gallia Transalpina is renamed Gallia Narbonensis.
~51 B.C. Julius Caesar passes through Monaco on his way home after the Gallic Wars.
476 - 975 - FUCKING CHAOS UP IN HERE
476 - Monaco remains under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The city is then under the domain of Flavius Odoacer, the King of Italy.
493 - Odoacer is killed after signing a treaty that ensured a shared rule over Italy with the Ostrogoths. Monaco becomes part of the Ostrogothic kingdom, along with the rest of Italy.
~541–554 - During Justinian I's second campaign in Italy, Monaco is recaptured from the Ostrogoths by the Romans.
~636-652 - Monaco is captured by the Lombards, and remains under the reign of Rotari, also duke of Brescia and Arian.
~774 - The Franks of the Carolingian Empire capture Monaco along with the rest of the Kingdom of Italy.
??? - 975 - Monaco is under the control of the Saracens.
975 - 1191 - Provence (French territory under the control of HRE)
1191 - 1297: Genoa (Italy)
1191 - Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI gives Monaco to Genoa as a gift.
1191 - Prince's Palace of Monaco built as a Genoese fortress.
Jun. 10, 1215 - Genoese Ghibellines (led by Fulco del Cassello) begin to construct a fortress on top of the Rock of Monaco.
1297 - 1301: Independent
1297 - (Guelph) Francesco [François] Grimaldi family seizes the Rock of Monaco from the Ghibellines, sneaking into the fortress disguised as monks, starting the Grimaldi dynasty. Rainier I becomes the first Lord of Monaco.
1301 - 1331: Genoa (Italy)
Apr. 10, 1301 - Monaco is occupied by the Genoese.
Aug. 1304 - Battle of Zierikzee, in which Lord Rainier I led 26 French and Monegasque ships to victory over England's Dutch and Flemish allies off the coast of France, capturing Flemish general Guy de Dampierre in the process. King Philippe IV of France appoints Rainier to the rank of Admiral-General of France and granted him the title to Villeneuve in Normandy.
1309 - Rainier I builds the fortified base known as Chateau Grimaldi in Cagnes (now France), and is titled Lord of Cagnes.
1314 - Lord Rainier I dies, and is succeeded by his son, Lord Charles I.
1331 - 1357: Independent
Sep. 12, 1331 - Lord Charles I takes back Monaco from the Genoese, restoring its independence.
1332 - Charles' brother Antonio Grimaldi, a naval admiral, defeats the group of Catalans (mostly employed by the Aragonese) terrorizing Monegasque shipping lanes when they attack Monaco itself.
1336 - Monegasque ships (under the command of Charles Grimaldi) plunder Venetian ships off the coasts of Syria and Egypt. On behalf of Venice, Pope Benedict XII calls on King Robert of Naples (also Lord of Provence) to reign in the Monegasques. Robert admits that the neither Provence nor the other Italian states have any authority over Monaco, the first ever acknowledgement of Monaco's independence.
1337 - After years of squabbling with the Monegasques, the Catalans admit defeat, and the skirmishes cease.
Oct. 5, 1338 - Monegasque ships (allied with the French and Genoese, and once again under the command of Charles Grimaldi) participate in the English Channel naval campaign, pillaging Southampton and escaping before the English have time to react. Attacks on the English coast continued for another year afterward.
Aug. 26, 1346 - Allied with the French, Monegasque troops participate in the Battle of Crecy in northern France, but are ultimately defeated by the English and their allies. Charles is injured and left for dead, but survives the battle.
1346 - Menton is purchased from Nicholas Spinola.
Jun 29, 1352 - Preparing for his own death, Lord Charles I creates a joint government of his sons Rainier II, Gabriel, and his uncle Antonio Grimaldi.
1353 - Antonio Grimaldi, leading the Monegasques and allied with the Genoese at the Battle of Loiera, is defeated by the Venetians and the Aragonese. The Genoese authorities try to blame the loss entirely on Antonio due to "ineptitude and cowardice," and are forced to turn to Milan for protection.
1355 - Rocquebrune is acquired from Nicholas Spinola, at a rumored price of ~1,280 florins when combined with the money spent on Menton --money acquired through the looting of Southampton. Lordships of Castillon and Eze are purchased, as well, from what was then Provence.
Aug. 15, 1357 - Lord Charles I dies.
1357 - 1397: Genoa (Italy)
1357 - Citing the loss at the Battle of Loiera, the Genoese drive Antonio Grimaldi and his co-rulers out of Monaco and reassert their control over the country.
1397 - 1402: Independent
1402 - 1419: Genoa (Italy)
1419 - 1524: Independent
1419 - Grimaldi family purchases Rock of Monaco from Aragonese-held Provence (Spain), giving them undisputed ownership
1424 - Treaty with Florence (Italy); became a client/protégé
1428 - Treaty with Savoy (France); became a client/protégé
Oct. - Nov. 1436: Milan (Italy)
1436 - Occupied by Milan (Italy)
1436 - 1524: Independent
1448 - Another treaty with Savoy (France); cedes half of Menton & Rocquebrune
1477 - (11/12 of) Menton & Rocquebrune purchased back from Savoy (France)
1477 - Treaty with Milan (Italy); became a client/protégé
1489 - Independence recognized by Savoy (France)
1512 - Granted 'protection et sauvegarde especial;' lord keeps "preeminences, privileges, rights and freedoms"
1524 - Independence recognized by the Pope
1524 - 1641: Spain
1524 - Treaty signed in Burgos, making Monaco an imperial fief; lord must pay homage to Spain
Nov. 1524 - Treaty revised in Trodesillas (at lord's request), and Monaco is no longer a fief; lord no longer must pay homage
1605 - Spanish garrison posted in Monaco
1612 - Honoré II begins calling himself 'lord and prince'
1619 - Honoré II begins calling himself 'prince of Monaco'
1633 - Spain recognizes lord Honoré II as prince, and thus Monaco as a principality
[1635 - Thirty Years War, hostilities break out between Spain and France]
[1640 - Catalonia revolts against Habsburgs, asks France for help]
1641 - 1693: France
1641 - French troops force Spanish garrison from Monaco
Sep. 14, 1641 - Treaty of Péronne, France offers Monaco protection ("the prince in his full liberty and sovereignty over Monaco, Menton and Roquebrune")
French garrison posted Monaco
King of France offers to reimburse prince for his financial/property losses in Naples and Milan, which the king of Spain will confiscate (worth ~25,000 écus)
Nov. 18, 1641 - Prince writes to king of Spain, informing him of Monaco's changed alliagence
May 1642 - Prince is given French nationality, and granted various estates in the Dauphiné, as compensation for the lost estates in Naples and Milan. The states form into the duchy-peerage of Valentinois, the marquisat des Baux, and the comté de Carladès
1659 - Treaty of the Pyrenees, prince's estates in Naples and Milan are given back; rather than give up his peerage, the prince ceded his rights to the king of France, who gave the revenue and management of those estates to the duke of Lanti
1693 - 1793: Independent
1791 - Prince reimbursed for his losses in France as a result of the abolition of feudalism in the French Revolution
Jan. 1793 - National convention elected, Grimaldis deposed, Monaco asks for unification with France
1793 - 1814: France
Feb. 14, 1793 - Monaco annexed by France
May 30, 1814 - Treaty of Paris, Monaco returned to the Grimaldi family with same borders as 1792, but still under French protection
1815 - 1860: Sardinia (Italy)
Nov. 20, 1815 - Treaty of Vienna, Monaco made into a Sardinian protectorate
Nov. 1817 - Treaty of Stupiniggi, relations between Monaco and Sardinia defined; very similar to Treaty of Péronne
1848 - Menton and Rocquebrune declare themselves free cities, asking to be united with Sardinia in the Italian Risorgimento
May 1, 1849 - Unofficially, Sardinia places Menton and Rocquebrune in the district of Nice, prince of Monaco objects to no avail
Mar. 24, 1860 - Treaty of Turin, entire county of Nice (including Monaco) is ceded to France
1860 - present: Sovereign
Feb. 18, 1861 - Franco-Monegasque Treaty, Monaco is granted sovereignty, and its military defense is made into France's responsibility; Monegasque claims to Menton and Rocquebrune are abandoned to France in exchange for four million francs; Monaco agrees not to cede all or part of the principality to any power other than France
1863 - Casino of Monte Carlo is opened
1910 - Monegasque Revolution, Prince of Monaco is no longer an aboslute ruler
1911 - Consitution is written
Oct. 8, 1914 - Constitution is suspended as changes are made
Nov. 18, 1917 - Revised constituion is reinstated
Jul. 17, 1918 - Treaty with France, Monegasque policy is to be be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests
1918 - Monaco Succession Crisis, control of Monaco would soon pass to a German cousin of Prince Albert I, and desperate measures were taken for Prince Albert's only unmarried son to formally adopt his illigitimate daughter
1922 - Prince Louis II succeeds his father
1933 - German Nazi regime becomes aware of the advantages of an independent and neutral Monaco as a center for German international banking and commerce
1936 - German Minister for Finance Hjalmar Schact visits Prince Louis II and starts setting up German companies in Monaco
???? - Prince Louis II suspends Monaco's constitution and rules by decree
Jun. 1940 - Mussolini declares war on France and Italian troops occupy Monaco, but retreat quickly under Hitler's orders; Louis II expresses his admiration for the Vichy regime under Marshall Pétain
Jul. 3, 1941 - Under German influence, Prince Louis II passes a law that all Jews in Monaco must be registered by the state; several German and Austrian Jews who had fled to Monaco were handed over to Vichy France
Nov. 11, 1942 - Italian army invades and occupies Monaco once more, this time setting up a fascist puppet government
Sep. 8, 1943 - Germany army takes over occupation of Monaco and begins deporting the Jewish population
May 30, 1944 - Princess Charlotte, daughter of Prince Louis II, renounces her succession rights in favor of her son Rainier
Sep. 3, 1944 - Germans retreat and Monaco is liberated by Allied forces
Sep. 28, 1944 - Rainier joins the French army under Charles de Gaulle
1959 - Constitution of 1919 is suspended as changes are made once more
Dec. 17, 1962 - Constitution and 1918 treaty with France are revised, abolishing capital punishment, providing female suffrage, establishing a Supreme Court, and making it more difficult for the French to transfer their residence to Monaco
1993 - Monaco becomes an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights
2002 - Treaty between France and Monaco states that if there are no heirs to carry on the dynasty, the Principality will remain an independent nation, rather than be annexed by France